As for bone remodeling in response to applied stress, it will occur according to Wolff’s law, that bone remodels according to the location of lines of stress. We see this at the femoral neck most apparently as one can radiographically visualize the curving lines of the trabeculae (little bony plates that make up the inner spongy bone) aligning to support the weight of the body. In one of the articles I read below, differences were seen between runners and soccer players, with soccer players Nike Air Max Classic BW Hombre having greater cross sectional diameter of the metatarsals. A suggested reason for this observation was that the bones were subjected to more forward, backward, and side to side motion as opposed to the continually straight ahead motion found in runners.As for bone remodeling, this is a dynamic process dependent on the Nike Air Max 97 Femme interplay between osteoblasts and osteoclasts (cells that respectively build and break down bone). From an imaging standpoint, osteoblastic response to injury can be seen as early as two weeks from onset of injury – with an MRI this can be seen as intramedullary edema (swelling inside the bony shaft, typically called a stress reaction) even before a stress fracture line is visible. It is important to note however that the laying down of new bone in response to stress is disorganized and that a delicate interplay Nike Air Presto Mujer exists between osteoblasts (bone building cells) and osteoclasts (bone removing cells) during the healing process. This interplay eventually allows for the most optimal healing to occur according to the load placed on the affected bone. This balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity is disrupted with a stress Nike Air Max 98 Mens fracture and repeated loading, thus the osteoclast wins out and the bone weakens thus leading to the fracture. Once this point is reached, the bone requires immobilization for optimal healing. All of the literature I’ve come across describes a rest period of approximately 6 to 8 weeks in adults, with shorter periods for children and adolescents. Also, all of the literature recommends a return to activity in a graded fashion to avoid re-injury. There is no description of a window at which point you would risk greater Nike Air Max Classic BW Womens injury because that is variable amongst different individuals. For instance, my body is sore and my bones ache after a 9 mile long run this weekend, to the point that I know I risk injury by running the day after. Dean Karnazes goes out and runs 40 miles today and can do another 40 tomorrow. He’s just different, and Nike Air Vapormax Dames so is his body.There a multitude of suggested risk factors for the development of stress fractures. These include and are not limited to female sex, lower bone mineral density, smoking, malnutrition, poor training habits, being overweight or underweight (probably an aspect of nutrition), shoe wear (although the article that mentioned this as a risk factor did not articulate as to what type of shoe wear), and even a tight Achilles which may play a role in the angle of the metatarsals at push off, which can subject Nike Air Max 270 Femme them to increased stresses. One interesting thing, and I have no way to prove it at this time, is that bone mineralization in consistently shod individuals will likely be less in the involved extremity than in the non-shod individual. I base this upon my experience in evaluating the x-rays of individuals who have been casted for any period of time or who have had surgery which resulted in non-weight bearing in an extremity. The trabecular bone density decreases dramatically in those injured or non weight bearing. Now a cast is an extreme example of a “shod” individual, but I firmly believe that the bones in the foot adapt over time to being chronically shod vs. unshod. When I get some good imaging examples I will be sure to share them as I am beginning to collect a series of images of running related injuries evaluated using Nike Air Max 90 Womens radiologic technology.