The citation in this latter paragraph (Potthast et al. 2005) piqued my interest, so I hopped onto Google Scholar and found the reference, as well as a few others by the same authors. Turns out they are not Nike Air Max Classic BW Womens journal articles, but rather are extended abstracts from a series of scientific meetings. Interestingly enough, Potthast and colleagues had conducted a study to see if training in the Nike Adidas NMD Femme Free shoes might actually lead to strengthening of muscles in the feet and legs when compared to training in a more typical shoe. Here’s their description of the study in “scientist-speak:”“…it can be hypothesized that an especially designed training shoe with a multiple segmented outsole, mimicking barefoot movements and allowing barefoot-like exercises on hard surfaces, could induce different mechanical stimuli on foot and shank muscles. A biopositive adaptation should be advantageous in terms of injury prevention or performance enhancement. The purpose of this study was to identify an eventual training and adaptation effect in morphology and Nike Air Max 270 Femmefunction on foot and lower leg muscles when wearing such a specifically designed training shoe.”The scientists took 100 individuals, split them into two equally sized groups, and had Adidas NMD Mujer them perform a series of exercises on a weekly basis in either Nike Free shoes or a conventional running shoe (for a duration of 6 months). The exercises included running, aerobics, skipping, and Adidas ZX 750 Hombre a variety of other things. They were also allowed to wear the shoes in everyday life if they so chose. They took a variety of measurements before the initiation of the study, including toe flexor strength (toe flexion is downward bending of the toes), range of motion of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (i.e., the joint at the base of the big toe/hallux), and the active path of motion of the same joint. They also took a subset of 25 individuals assigned to wear the Nike Frees and took MRI’s of the lower leg and foot to obtain information about muscle cross-sectional area (think of this as muscle belly size for simplicty’s sake).What Nike Air Presto Womens they found was that individuals in the conventional shoe group saw no change in toe flexor strength, whereas the Nike Free group saw a significant 20% increase in toe flexor strength. The Adidas Ultra Boost Dam experimental group also saw a reduced path of motion of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint, which they suggested could be related to the higher strength of the toe flexors – stronger flexion of the toes would lead to less dorsiflexion (upward tow movement) during gait. With regard to MRI results, they found that the flexor hallucis longus (the muscle that flexes the big toe) was significantly larger after the experiment in those assigned the Nike Free. Although not significantly larger (very close), they found that both the abductor hallucis (the muscle that pulls the big toe away from the second toe) and tibialis posterior (a muscle the supports www.melanieo.fr the arch and resists pronation) showed a trend toward size increase after the experiment for the Nike Free group.In a second Abstract from the 2005 American Society of Biomechanics meeting,Nike Air Max 90 Dames the same group reports additional data showing that plantar flexor strength (calf muscles) and dorsiflexor strength (tibialis anterior I presume) also increased in the Nike Free group.I haven’t been able to find either of these studies published in full in a peer reviewed scientific journal, so they need to be taken for what they are as conference abstracts. However, they do suggest that a period of training in Nike Frees can increase muscle size and strength when compared to training in a more conventional shoe, at least for some muscles. What I find particularly compelling is that the subjects weren’t even necessarily running in the shoes Nike Free Run 2.0 Mujer very much – aerobics, skipping, side stepping, etc. were also included in the training plan. If doing these types of things can increase toe flexion strength, foot plantar flexion strength, www.charleedrew.co.uk foot dorsiflexion strength, and so on, one wonders what would happen if a more intensive running program were employed? Furthermore, the Nike Free isn’t even all that minimal of a shoe – it’s pretty cushy and retains a fairly sizable heel lift. I’d love to see a similar study that compares a group of runners using traditional shoes to a group that transitions from traditional shoes to something like the Vibram Fivefingers for six months.